Research has formed a major part in formulating the intelligence increasing techniques, methods, audios and articles found throughout the site.

Research articles which may be of use to you in the field of cognitive improvement are contained below. This combines all the research used for the BrainTune Series and our other programs.

Anoukhin, A. "EEG Alpha Rhythm Frequency and Intelligence in Normal Individuals." Intelligence, 23: 1-14.
 
Atwater, F. H. (1988). "The Monroe Institute's Hemisync process: A Theoretical Perspective." Faber, Va: Monroe Institute.
 
Barber, T. X. (1957). "Experiments in hypnosis." Scientific American, 196, 54-61.

Benson, H., Wallace, R.K. (1972). "The Physiology of Meditation." Scientific American, Vol 226, No 2, 84-90.
 
Berg, K, Siever, D (1999). "Audio-Visual Entrainment as a Treatment Modality for Seasonal Affective Disorder." Presented at the Society for Neuronal Regulation.
 
Berg, K, Mueller, H., Siebael, D., Siever, D. (1999). "Outcome of Medical Methods, Audio-Visual Entrainment, and Nutritional Supplementation for the Treatment of Fibromyalgia Syndrome." Presented at the Society for Neuronal Regulation.
 
Bermer, F. (1958). "Cerebral and cerebellar potentials." Physiological Review, 38, 357-388.
 
Boersma, F., Gagnon, C. (1992). "The Use of Repetitive Audiovisual Entrainment in the Management of Chronic Pain." Medical Hypnosis Journal, Vol 7, No3: 80-97.
 
Brackopp, G. W. (1984). Review of research on Multi-Modal sensory stimulation with clinical implications and research proposals. Unpublished manuscript--see Hutchison (1986).
 
Budzynski, T. H. (1977). "Tuning in on the twilight zone." Psychology Today, August.
 
Cade, C. M. & Coxhead, N. (1979) "The Awakened Mind: BiofeedBack and the Development of Higher States of Consciousness." New York: Delacorte Press.
 
Chatrian, G., Petersen, M., Lazarte, J. (1960). "Responses to Clicks from the Human Brain: Some Depth Electrographic Observation." Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 12: 479-487.
 
Deikman, A. (1969). "De-automatization and the mystic experience." In C. T. Tart (Ed.), Altered States of Consciousness. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
 
Dempsey, E., Morison, R. (1942). "The Interaction of Certain Spontaneous and Induce Cortical Potentials." American Journal of Physiology, 135: 301-307.
 
Eppley, K.R., Abrams, A. (1989). "Differential Effects Of Relaxation Techniques on Trait Anxiety: A Meta-Analysis." Journal of Clinical Psychology, Vol 45, 6: 957-973.
 
Evans, F. J., Gustafson, L. A., O'Connell, D. N., Orne, M. T. & Shor, R. E. (1970). "Verbally-induced behavioral response during sleep." Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 1, 1-26.
 
Fox, P., Raichle, M. (1985). "Stimulus Rate Determines Regional Blood Flow in Striate Cortex." Annals of Neurology, Vol 17, No 3: 303-305.
 
Fredrick, J., Lubar, J., Rasey, H., Blackburn, J. (1999). "Effects of 18.5 Hz Audiovisual Stimulation On EEG Amplitude at the Vertex." Proceedings AAPB Thirteenth Anniversary Annual Meeting, 42-45.
 
Foster, D. S. (1990) "EEG and subjective correlates of alpha frequency binaural beats stimulation combined with alpha biofeedBack." Ann Arbor, MI: UMI, Order No. 9025506.
 
Foulkes, D. & Vogel, G. (1964). "Mental activity at sleep-onset." Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 70, 231-243.
 
Giannitrapani, D. (1969). "EEG Average Frequency and Intelligence." Electroencephalography & Clinical Neurophysiology, 27, 480-486.
 
Gontgovsky, S., Montgomery, D. (1999). "The Physiological Response to "Beta Sweep" Entrainment." Proceedings AAPB Thirteenth Anniversary Annual Meeting, 62-65.
 
Hoovey, Z. B., Heinemann, U. & Creutzfeldt, O. D. (1972). "Inter-hemispheric 'synchrony' of alpha waves." Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 32, 337-347.
 
Hutchison, M. (1986). Megabrain. New York: Beech Tree Books. William Morrow.
 
Hutchison, M. (1990). "Special issue on sound/light." Megabrain Report: Vol 1, No. 2.
 
Jausovec, N. (1996). "Differences in EEG Alpha Activity Related to Giftedness." Intelligence, 23, 159-173.
 
Joyce, M., Siever, D., Twittey, M. (2000). "Audio Visual Entrainment Program as a Treatment for Behavior Disorders in a School Setting." Journal of Neurotherapy, Vol 4, No 2, 9-25.
 
Kooi, K. A. (1971). Fundamentals of Electroencephalography. New York: Harper & Row.
 
Manns, A., Mirralles, R., Adrian, H. (1981). "The Application of Audio Stimulation and Electromyographic Biofeedback to Bruxism and Myofascial Pain-Dysfunction Syndrome." Oral Surgery, Vol 52, No 3, 247-252.
 
Markland, O.N. (1990). "Alpha Rythms." Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology, 7, 163-189.
 
Mavromatis, A. (1987). "Hypnagogia: The Unique State of Consciousness Between Wakefulness and Sleep." New York: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
 
Miller, E. E. (1987). Software for the Mind: How to program Your Mind for Optimum Health and Performance. Berkeley, CA: Celestial Arts.
 
Oster, G. (1973). "Auditory beats in the brain." Scientific American, 229, 94-102.
 
Rosenzweig, M. R. "Auditory Localization." Perception: Mechanisms and Models, Readings from Scientific American, W. H. Freeman and Company, San Fransisco.
 
Rossi, E. L. (1986). The Psychobiology of Mind-Body Healing. New York: W. W. Norton.
 
Rubin, F. (1968). (Ed.), Current Research in Hypnopaedia. London: MacDonald.
 
Schacter, D. L. (1977). "EEG theta waves and psychological phenomena: A review and analysis." Psychology, 5, 47-82.
 
Shealy, N., Cady, R., Cox, R., Liss, S., Clossen, W., Veehoff, D. "A Comparison of Depths of Relaxation Produced by Various Techniques and Neurotransmitters by Brainwave Entrainment - Shealy and Forest Institute of Professional Psychology" A study done for Comprehensive Health Care, Unpublished.
 
Siever, D. "Isochronic Tones and Brainwave Entrainment." Unpublished.
 
Siever, D. (2002) "The Rediscovery of Audio-Visual Entrainment Technology." Self-published by mindalive.ca.
 
Siever, D., Twittey, M. "Light and Sound Stimulation as a Treatment for Chronic Pain." Unpublished.
 
Svyandoshch, A. (1968). "The assimilation and memorization of speech during natural sleep." In F. Rubin (Ed.), Current Research in Hypnopaedia. London: MacDonald.
Thomas, N., Siever, D. (1976). "The Effect of Repetitive Audio/Visual Stimulation on Skeletomotor and Vascular Activity." Hypnosis - The Fourth European Congress at Oxford.
 
Timmerman, D. L., Lubar, J. F., Rasey, H. W., Frederick, J. A. (1999). "Effects of 20-Min Audio-Visual Stimulation (AVS) at Dominant Alpha Frequency and Twice Dominant Alpha Frequency on the Cortical EEG." International Journal of Psychophysiology.
 
Toman, J (1941). "Flicker Potentials and the Alpha Rhythm in Man." Journal of Neurophysiology, Vol 4, 51-61.
 
Trudeau, D. (1999). "A Trial of 18 Hz Audio-Visual Stimulation (AVS) on Attention and Concentration in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS)." Presented at the Society for Neuronal Regulation.
 
Van Dusen, W. (1975). The Presence of Other Worlds. London: Wildwood House.
 
Vogt, F., Klimesh, W., Dopelmayr, M. (1998). "High Frequency Components in the Alpha Band and Memory Performance." Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology, 15, 167-172.
 
Walter, V. J. & Walter, W. G. (1949). "The central effects of rhythmic sensory stimulation." Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 1, 57-86.
Wise, Anna. "The High Performance Mind." G.P. Putman's Sons, New York
 

Janet P. Psychological Healing: A Historical and Clinical Study. Paul E, Paul C, trans. London: Allen & Unwin; 1925.

 Dempsey E, Morison R. The interation of certain spontaneous and induced cortical potentials. Am J Physiol. 1941;135:301-308.

Chatrian GE, Petersen MC, Lazarte JA. Responses to clicks from the human brain: some depth electrographic observations. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol. 1960 May;12:479-489.

Walter WG, Dovey VJ, Shipton H. Analysis of the electrical response of the human cortex to photic stimulation. Nature. 1946;158(4016):540-541.

Kroger WS, Schneider SA. An electronic aid for hypnotic induction: a preliminary report. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis 1959;7:93-98.

Williams P, West M. EEG responses to photic stimulation in persons experienced at meditation. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol. 1975;39(5):519-522.

Oster G. Auditory beats in the brain. Sci Am. 1973;229(4):94-102.

Demos JN. Getting Started With Neurofeedback. New York, NY: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc.; 2005: 71.

Toman J. Flicker potentials and the alpha rhythm in man. J Neurophysiol. 1941;4(1):51-61.

Nyström SH. Effects of photic stimulation on neuronal activity and subjective experience in man. Acta Neurol Scand. 1966;42(5):505-514.

Moruzzi G, Magoun HW. Brain stem reticular formation and activation of the EEG. 1949. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 1995;7(2):251-267.

Rogers LJ, Walter DO. Methods for finding single generators, with application to auditory driving of the human EEG by complex stimuli. J Neurosci Methods. 1981;4(3):257-265.

Williams JH. Frequency-specific effects of flicker on recognition memory. Neuroscience. 2001;104(2):283-286.

Rosenfeld JP, Reinhart AM, Srivastava S. The effects of alpha (10-Hz) and beta (22-Hz) “entrainment” stimulation on the alpha and beta EEG bands: individual differences are critical to prediction of effects. Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 1997;22(1):3-20.

Kumano H, Horie H, Kuboki T, et al. EEG-driven photic stimulation effect on plasma cortisol and beta-endorphin. Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 1997;22(3):193-208.

Joyce M, Siever D. Audio-Visual Entrainment (AVE) program as a treatment for behavior disorders in a school setting. J Neurother. 2000;4(2):9-25.

Wahbeh H, Calabrese C, Zwickey H, Zajdel D. Binaural beat technology in humans: a pilot study to assess neuropsychologic, physiologic, and electroencephalographic effects. J Altern Complement Med. 2007;13(2):199-206.

Patrick GJ. Improved neuronal regulation in ADHD: An application of 15 sessions of photic-driv-en EEG neurotherapy. J Neurother. 1996;1(4):27-36.

Olmstead R. Use of auditory and visual stimulation to improve cognitive abilities in learning-disabled children. J Neurother. 2005;9(2):49-61.

Lane JD, Kasian SJ, Owens JE, Marsh GR. Binaural auditory beats affect vigilance performance and mood. Physiol Behav. 1998;63(2):249-252.

Williams J, Ramaswamy D, Oulhaj A. 10 Hz flicker improves recognition memory in older people. BMC Neurosci. 2006 Mar 5;7:21.

Budzynski T, Jordy J, Budzynski HK, Tang H, Claypoole K. Academic performance enhancement with photic stimulation and EDR feedback. J Neurother. 1999;3(3-4):11-21.

Le Scouarnec RP, Poirier RM, Owens JE, Gauthier J, Taylor AG, Foresman PA. Use of binaural beat tapes for treatment of anxiety: a pilot study of tape preference and outcomes. Altern Ther Health Med. 2001;7(1):58-63.

Padmanabhan R, Hildreth AJ, Laws D. A prospective, randomised, controlled study examining binaural beat audio and pre-operative anxiety in patients undergoing general anaesthesia for day case surgery. Anaesthesia. 2005;60(9):874-877.

Ossebaard HC. Stress reduction by technology? An experimental study into the effects of brainmachines on burnout and state anxiety. Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 2000;25(2):93-101.

Morse DR, Chow E. The effect of the Relaxodont brain wave synchronizer on endodontic anxiety: evaluation by galvanic skin resistance, pulse rate, physical reactions, and questionnaire responses. Int J Psychosom. 1993;40(1-4):68-76.

Wahbeh H, Calabrese C, Zwickey H. Binaural beat technology in humans: a pilot study to assess psychologic and physiologic effects. J Altern Complement Med. 2007;13(1):25-32.

Howard CE, Graham LE, 2nd, Wycoff SJ. A comparison of methods for reducing stress among dental students. J Dent Educ. 1986;50(9):542-544.

Nomura T, Higuchi K, Yu H, et al. Slow-wave photic stimulation relieves patient discomfort during esophagogastroduodenoscopy. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006;21(1 Pt 1):54-58.

Manns A, Miralles R, Adrián H. The application of audiostimulation and electromyographic biofeedback to bruxism and myofascial pain-dysfunction syndrome. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1981;52(3):247-252.

Noton D. Migraine and photic stimulation: report on a survey of migraineurs using flickering light therapy. Complement Ther Nurs Midwifery. 2000;6(3):138-142.

Solomon GD. Slow wave photic stimulation in the treatment of headache—a preliminary report. Headache. 1985;25(8):444-446.

Anderson DJ. The treatment of migraine with variable frequency photo-stimulation. Headache. 1989;29(3):154-155.

Anderson DJ, Legg NJ, Ridout DA. Preliminary trial of photic stimulation for premenstrual syndrome. J Obstet Gynaecol. 1997;17(1):76-79.

 

Peer Reviewed Research

There is also a whole host of peer reviewed research on the technological aspects of brainwave stimulation. Below are some of the publications which have recently been released:

Howard, C. E., Graham, L. E., 2nd and Wycoff, S. J., 1986. "A comparison of methods for reducing stress among dental students." J Dent Educ. 50, 542-544.

Lane, J. D., Kasian, S. J., Owens, J. E. and Marsh, G. R., 1998. "Binaural auditory beats affect vigilance performance and mood." Physiol Behav. 63, 249-252.

Leonard, K. N., Telch, M. J. and Harrington, P. J., 1999. "Dissociation in the laboratory: a comparison of strategies." Behav Res Ther. 37, 49-61.

Morse, D. R. and Chow, E., 1993. "The effect of the Relaxodont brain wave synchronizer on endodontic anxiety: evaluation by galvanic skin resistance, pulse rate, physical reactions, and questionnaire responses." Int J Psychosom. 40, 68-76.

Ossebaard, H. C., 2000. "Stress reduction by technology? An experimental study into the effects of brainmachines on burnout and state anxiety." Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 25, 93-101.

Rosenfeld, J. P., Reinhart, A. M. and Srivastava, S., 1997. "The effects of alpha (10-Hz) and beta (22-Hz) "entrainment" stimulation on the alpha and beta EEG bands: individual differences are critical to prediction of effects." Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 22, 3-20.

San Martini, P., Venturini, R., Zapponi, G. A. and Loizzo, A., 1979." Interaction between intermittent photic stimulation and auditory stimulation on the human EEG. Preliminary investigation through power spectral analysis." Neuropsychobiology. 5, 201-206.

Williams, J., Ramaswamy, D. and Oulhaj, A., 2006. "10 Hz flicker improves recognition memory in older people." BMC Neurosci. 7, 21.

Williams, J. H., 2001. "Frequency-specific effects of flicker on recognition memory." Neuroscience. 104, 283-286.

Studies Using Music As A Control

Joyce, M. and Siever, D., 2000. "Audio-Visual Entrainment (AVE) Program as a Treatment for Behavior Disorders in a School Setting." Journal of Neurotherapy. 4, 9-25.

Kliempt, P., Ruta, D., Ogston, S., Landeck, A. and Martay, K., 1999. "Hemispheric-synchronisation during anaesthesia: a double-blind randomised trial using audiotapes for intra-operative nociception control." Anaesthesia. 54, 769-773.

Padmanabhan, R., Hildreth, A. J. and Laws, D., 2005. "A prospective, randomised, controlled study examining binaural beat audio and pre-operative anxiety in patients undergoing general anaesthesia for day case surgery." Anaesthesia. 60, 874-877.

Wahbeh, H., Calabrese, C. and Zwickey, H., 2007a. "Binaural beat technology in humans: a pilot study to assess psychologic and physiologic effects." J Altern Complement Med. 13, 25-32.

Wahbeh, H., Calabrese, C., Zwickey, H. and Zajdel, D., 2007b. "Binaural beat technology in humans: a pilot study to assess neuropsychologic, physiologic, and electroencephalographic effects." J Altern Complement Med. 13, 199-206.