There are hundreds of different things which can be added into BrainTune® and each of the variables we do add in, allows you to experience the purest and most effective sounds possible. We test every variable inside out to make sure you get the best intellectual and mental results you want. The information below highlights some of the things which make up a BrainTune® track:
If you're interested in scientific literature on this subject, you can ready about the latest scientific research here, from Alternative Therapies In Health And Medicine. This shows that brainwave technology has many beneficial therapeutic uses. Other articles which may be of interest to you are below. This is not a comprehensive list.
Peer Reviewed Research
There is also a whole host of peer reviewed research on the technological aspects of brainwave stimulation. Below are some of the publications which have recently been released:
Howard, C. E., Graham, L. E., 2nd and Wycoff, S. J., 1986. "A comparison of methods for reducing stress among dental students." J Dent Educ. 50, 542-544.
Lane, J. D., Kasian, S. J., Owens, J. E. and Marsh, G. R., 1998. "Binaural auditory beats affect vigilance performance and mood." Physiol Behav. 63, 249-252.
Leonard, K. N., Telch, M. J. and Harrington, P. J., 1999. "Dissociation in the laboratory: a comparison of strategies." Behav Res Ther. 37, 49-61.
Morse, D. R. and Chow, E., 1993. "The effect of the Relaxodont brain wave synchronizer on endodontic anxiety: evaluation by galvanic skin resistance, pulse rate, physical reactions, and questionnaire responses." Int J Psychosom. 40, 68-76.
Ossebaard, H. C., 2000. "Stress reduction by technology? An experimental study into the effects of brainmachines on burnout and state anxiety." Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 25, 93-101.
Rosenfeld, J. P., Reinhart, A. M. and Srivastava, S., 1997. "The effects of alpha (10-Hz) and beta (22-Hz) "entrainment" stimulation on the alpha and beta EEG bands: individual differences are critical to prediction of effects." Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 22, 3-20.
San Martini, P., Venturini, R., Zapponi, G. A. and Loizzo, A., 1979." Interaction between intermittent photic stimulation and auditory stimulation on the human EEG. Preliminary investigation through power spectral analysis." Neuropsychobiology. 5, 201-206.
Williams, J., Ramaswamy, D. and Oulhaj, A., 2006. "10 Hz flicker improves recognition memory in older people." BMC Neurosci. 7, 21.
Williams, J. H., 2001. "Frequency-specific effects of flicker on recognition memory." Neuroscience. 104, 283-286.
Studies Using Music As A Control
Joyce, M. and Siever, D., 2000. "Audio-Visual Entrainment (AVE) Program as a Treatment for Behavior Disorders in a School Setting." Journal of Neurotherapy. 4, 9-25.
Kliempt, P., Ruta, D., Ogston, S., Landeck, A. and Martay, K., 1999. "Hemispheric-synchronisation during anaesthesia: a double-blind randomised trial using audiotapes for intra-operative nociception control." Anaesthesia. 54, 769-773.
Padmanabhan, R., Hildreth, A. J. and Laws, D., 2005. "A prospective, randomised, controlled study examining binaural beat audio and pre-operative anxiety in patients undergoing general anaesthesia for day case surgery." Anaesthesia. 60, 874-877.
Wahbeh, H., Calabrese, C. and Zwickey, H., 2007a. "Binaural beat technology in humans: a pilot study to assess psychologic and physiologic effects." J Altern Complement Med. 13, 25-32.
Wahbeh, H., Calabrese, C., Zwickey, H. and Zajdel, D., 2007b. "Binaural beat technology in humans: a pilot study to assess neuropsychologic, physiologic, and electroencephalographic effects." J Altern Complement Med. 13, 199-206.
Janet P. Psychological Healing: A Historical and Clinical Study. Paul E, Paul C, trans. London: Allen & Unwin; 1925.
Dempsey E, Morison R. The interation of certain spontaneous and induced cortical potentials. Am J Physiol. 1941;135:301-308.
Chatrian GE, Petersen MC, Lazarte JA. Responses to clicks from the human brain: some depth electrographic observations. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol. 1960 May;12:479-489.
Walter WG, Dovey VJ, Shipton H. Analysis of the electrical response of the human cortex to photic stimulation. Nature. 1946;158(4016):540-541.
Kroger WS, Schneider SA. An electronic aid for hypnotic induction: a preliminary report. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis 1959;7:93-98.
Williams P, West M. EEG responses to photic stimulation in persons experienced at meditation. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol. 1975;39(5):519-522.
Oster G. Auditory beats in the brain. Sci Am. 1973;229(4):94-102.
Demos JN. Getting Started With Neurofeedback. New York, NY: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc.; 2005: 71.
Toman J. Flicker potentials and the alpha rhythm in man. J Neurophysiol. 1941;4(1):51-61.
Nyström SH. Effects of photic stimulation on neuronal activity and subjective experience in man. Acta Neurol Scand. 1966;42(5):505-514.
Moruzzi G, Magoun HW. Brain stem reticular formation and activation of the EEG. 1949. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 1995;7(2):251-267.
Rogers LJ, Walter DO. Methods for finding single generators, with application to auditory driving of the human EEG by complex stimuli. J Neurosci Methods. 1981;4(3):257-265.
Williams JH. Frequency-specific effects of flicker on recognition memory. Neuroscience. 2001;104(2):283-286.
Rosenfeld JP, Reinhart AM, Srivastava S. The effects of alpha (10-Hz) and beta (22-Hz) “entrainment” stimulation on the alpha and beta EEG bands: individual differences are critical to prediction of effects. Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 1997;22(1):3-20.
Kumano H, Horie H, Kuboki T, et al. EEG-driven photic stimulation effect on plasma cortisol and beta-endorphin. Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 1997;22(3):193-208.
Joyce M, Siever D. Audio-Visual Entrainment (AVE) program as a treatment for behavior disorders in a school setting. J Neurother. 2000;4(2):9-25.
Wahbeh H, Calabrese C, Zwickey H, Zajdel D. Binaural beat technology in humans: a pilot study to assess neuropsychologic, physiologic, and electroencephalographic effects. J Altern Complement Med. 2007;13(2):199-206.
Patrick GJ. Improved neuronal regulation in ADHD: An application of 15 sessions of photic-driv-en EEG neurotherapy. J Neurother. 1996;1(4):27-36.
Olmstead R. Use of auditory and visual stimulation to improve cognitive abilities in learning-disabled children. J Neurother. 2005;9(2):49-61.
Lane JD, Kasian SJ, Owens JE, Marsh GR. Binaural auditory beats affect vigilance performance and mood. Physiol Behav. 1998;63(2):249-252.
Williams J, Ramaswamy D, Oulhaj A. 10 Hz flicker improves recognition memory in older people. BMC Neurosci. 2006 Mar 5;7:21.
Budzynski T, Jordy J, Budzynski HK, Tang H, Claypoole K. Academic performance enhancement with photic stimulation and EDR feedback. J Neurother. 1999;3(3-4):11-21.
Le Scouarnec RP, Poirier RM, Owens JE, Gauthier J, Taylor AG, Foresman PA. Use of binaural beat tapes for treatment of anxiety: a pilot study of tape preference and outcomes. Altern Ther Health Med. 2001;7(1):58-63.
Padmanabhan R, Hildreth AJ, Laws D. A prospective, randomised, controlled study examining binaural beat audio and pre-operative anxiety in patients undergoing general anaesthesia for day case surgery. Anaesthesia. 2005;60(9):874-877.
Ossebaard HC. Stress reduction by technology? An experimental study into the effects of brainmachines on burnout and state anxiety. Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 2000;25(2):93-101.
Morse DR, Chow E. The effect of the Relaxodont brain wave synchronizer on endodontic anxiety: evaluation by galvanic skin resistance, pulse rate, physical reactions, and questionnaire responses. Int J Psychosom. 1993;40(1-4):68-76.
Wahbeh H, Calabrese C, Zwickey H. Binaural beat technology in humans: a pilot study to assess psychologic and physiologic effects. J Altern Complement Med. 2007;13(1):25-32.
Howard CE, Graham LE, 2nd, Wycoff SJ. A comparison of methods for reducing stress among dental students. J Dent Educ. 1986;50(9):542-544.
Nomura T, Higuchi K, Yu H, et al. Slow-wave photic stimulation relieves patient discomfort during esophagogastroduodenoscopy. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006;21(1 Pt 1):54-58.
Manns A, Miralles R, Adrián H. The application of audiostimulation and electromyographic biofeedback to bruxism and myofascial pain-dysfunction syndrome. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1981;52(3):247-252.
Noton D. Migraine and photic stimulation: report on a survey of migraineurs using flickering light therapy. Complement Ther Nurs Midwifery. 2000;6(3):138-142.
Solomon GD. Slow wave photic stimulation in the treatment of headache—a preliminary report. Headache. 1985;25(8):444-446.
Anderson DJ. The treatment of migraine with variable frequency photo-stimulation. Headache. 1989;29(3):154-155.
Anderson DJ, Legg NJ, Ridout DA. Preliminary trial of photic stimulation for premenstrual syndrome. J Obstet Gynaecol. 1997;17(1):76-79.
is a special mp3 sound file which uses extremely specific sound frequencies to create an effect in your mind.
These frequencies range from 0.5 Hz, all the way upto 40Hz. The frequencies of
the sound are "followed" by the brain, creating strong mental changes. These
changes can also be measured using an Electro Encephalograph (EEG) device which
shows the waveform of the brainwave frequency produced. The purity of the sounds is what allows for the changes.
Below are examples of the types of frequency sounds, what it would look like under an EEG measuring device, and the state of mind which happens from this.
The most obvious thing we add into the mp3's are the frequencies for entrainment, which is basically the frequencies which make all the awesome intellectual changes possible. As mentioned above, the frequencies can be 0.5 Hz, all the way beyond 25Hz. The frequencies we put in is different from series to series and the table above explains this best for you.
After the frequencies are made, the beat selection happens. All our tracks contain special beats called "isochronic, monaural or binaural beats". Isochronic beats are evenly spaced tones which turn on and off rapidly. This creates a rhythmic stimulus which can easily penetrate your mind, and is the most common method we use. Binaural and monaural beats are formed by using two different tones instead. Each beat protocol has its strength and weaknesses, and we match the protocols to the most appropriate BrainTune® package.
The sound effects are all of the different types of sound which you hear on the mp3's. None of our tracks actually contain music, because this can actually interfere with the purity of the entrainment frequencies. Instead, we add nature sounds, hypnotic tones and drones. We also create echo effects, reverberation, 3d sound and adjust the pitch and tempo. All of these are designed to add to the hypnotic and trance inducing nature of BrainTune®, allowing the entrainment to produce super specialised and pure cognitive improvements.